Yet isolation can also enhance species formation, with the diminished gene flow allowing populations to diverge and ultimately form new species if they remain isolated  ,  , . Alternatively, it is still possible that all these lakes are completely isolated, i. Supporting Information Table S1. Genetic divergence can preclude morphological or ecological distinction. The bottles were collected with support from organisations including Veolia working in partnership with MRWA. In contrast to most animals the mitochondrial DNA of sponges evolves slowly and generally slower than nuclear DNA  , .
These results indicate that Kakaban lake is very isolated both in physical and biological terms. Over the weekend, Wirral is hosting a range of maritime-themed events including street theatre, music performances, creative and circus workshops and a spectacular 3D projection onto Birkenhead Town Hall. Then main pool is over m long, and there is a rapidly growing group of swimmers who use it to train for big distance swims. The illumination will be accompanied by a performance from Merseyside Dance Initiative, developed in collaboration with award-winning choreographer Darren Suarez. The Darwin population of the present study, though small in sample size, is genetically differentiated from the other populations. Differential reproductive traits and output can promote the co-existence of sibling species e. While we swam there were adults lounging in the sun and chatting, teenagers hurling themselves in like cannonballs, smaller children crab fishing, toddlers splashing in the small toddler pool, folk of all ages jumping off the diving platform and a handful of kayaks on the lake; it is big enough to accomodate them all. Alternatively, it is still possible that all these lakes are completely isolated, i. Biogeographic scenario Kakaban lake was probably filled with sea water less than 12, years ago  , . And after your swim nobody would blame you if you decided to stroll along the pretty seafront to the pier, and treat yourself to an ice cream while soaking up the spectacular view of the Bristol Channel and Wales beyond. The only other phylogeographic studies on marine lakes have been in the islands of Palau on the jellyfish Mastigias papua  ;  , the fish Sphaeramia orbicularis  , and the mussel Brachidontes sp. Artist Lulu Quinn's 'Message in a Bottle' is a 26ft 8m bottle made entirely from recycled plastic, which at night becomes a beacon, illuminated from within. In concordance, our study shows that the population of Suberites diversicolor displayed the highest genetic diversity with unique genetic variants that were not shared with two marine lakes at just 6 km distance Fig. The color and substrate preference are variable, but not consistent within a particular lineage. Genetic signatures of glacial refugia are expected to be characterized by high genetic diversity and a mixture of ancestral and private haplotypes  , . These studies show extreme genetic isolation, low genetic diversity, and in the cases of Mastigias papua and Brachidontes sp. For lineage B we found no private haplotypes in any of the Indonesian marine lakes, and many lakes were identical in composition. Isolation acts to decrease the rate of immigration and thus to decrease the genetic diversity and the number of species expected at equilibrium in an island system  ,  ,  , . The divergence between lineage A and B points to a long isolation in spite of the fact that they are sympatric in Kakaban lake East Kalimantan. Recently renovated as a result of a tireless campaign the concrete tank is now crisp and watertight. For each specimen the following information is provided: Genetic divergence can preclude morphological or ecological distinction. The marine phylogeographic patterns of these studies strongly support the existence of a barrier in the area between the Sunda and Sahul shelves, where populations from Kalimantan are genetically isolated from those in Papua. These markers may not evolve fast enough for mutations to have accumulated to show the recent divergence. This pattern is congruent with philopatric, shortlived larvae that recruit at short distances from the parental locations  ,  , whilst at the same time the possibility of sponges to disperse as viable fragments in the currents or rafting on various floating material  ,  , .
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